Glossary


A

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

Malignant form of cancer affecting part of the haemopoietic system.

AE

Abbreviation for adverse events.

AFS

Abbreviation for available for sale, one of four categories of financial instruments.

AFVPL

Abbreviation for at fair value through profit or loss, one of four categories of financial instruments

AML

Abbreviation for acute myeloid leukaemia.

Anti-Mitotic

Inhibiting mitosis, i.e. cell nucleus division.

Apoptosis

The process of programmed cell death. This process can be caused by external factors, for example it may be triggered by immune cells, or may be activated due to cellular processes such as a damaged genome. Apoptosis is actively conducted by the cell´s internal components and results in destruction of the cell.


B

BMBF

German abbreviation for the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.


C

CAGR

Compound Annual Growth Rate. The annualised growth rate of an investment over a specified period of time.

Clinical Studies

Trials (Phase I through III) in drug development that are conducted in healthy subjects and patients.

CRC

Abbreviation for colorectal cancer.


D

D&O Insurance

Directors & Officers insurance.

Diversity

Concept of corporate governance, that takes into account the diversity of people and functions among a company's workforce, management and Supervisory Board.

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)

Deoxyribonucleic acid is a biological molecule that contains the genetic information in a cell and codes the blueprint for making the proteins.

DOR

Abbreviation for duration of response.


E

EG5

Kinesin spindle protein which plays a role in the distribution of chromosomes to the daughter cells during cell division.

EGFR

Abbreviation for epidermal growth factor receptor; a transmembrane receptor with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity that is highly regulated and/ or found in mutated form in many types of tumours, thus leading to uncontrolled cell growth.

Endpoint

General result of a study that evaluates the outcome of the individual steps based on a clinical trial protocol.

Enzyme

Protein which enables or accelerates chemical reactions in cells by acting as a catalyst.

Equity Method

Method used in annual financial statements to account for an entity’s investment in another entity’s voting capital.

ESOP

Abbreviation for employee stock option programme.


F

FIFO Method

Abbreviation for “first in, first out”; a procedure related to the measurement of inventories and their utilisation in connection with fluctuating procurement prices.

First-In-Man

Voluntary, usually healthy person participating in a clinical study.

FOLFIRI

Chemotherapy scheme for treating colon cancer.


H

HCC

Abbreviation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

HDAC

Abbreviation for histone deacetylase.

HDAC Inhibitor

Histone deacetylase inhibitor designed to prevent the cell division process of tumours directly and in a targeted way.

Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Malignant tumour triggered by the hepatocytes of the liver’s tissue; the most common form of liver cancer.

HL

Abbreviation for Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a malignant tumour in the lymph nodes.

HTM

Abbreviation for held to maturity, one of four categories of financial instruments.


I

IAS

Abbreviation for International Accounting Standards.

IASB

Abbreviation for International Accounting Standards Board.

IFRIC

Abbreviation for International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee.

IFRS

Abbreviation for International Financial Reporting Standards.

Impairment Test

Annual test of recognised goodwill for impairment.

in silicio

Description based on silicon, the chemical element used to manufacture computer chips. Computer-based simulation of biochemical processes and examination of the effi cacy of molecules.

in vitro

Experiments that take place in a controlled, artificial environment outside of the living organism, e.g. in a test tube.

in vivo

Experiments that take place in the living organism, e.g. in animal testing.

Inhibitor

Substance that inhibits a specific enzyme reaction.

INN

Abbreviation for international nonproprietary name, which is granted by the WHO.


K

Kinase

Protein which controls cellular signal transfer.


L

LAR

Abbreviation for loans and receivables, one of four categories of financial instruments.


M

Medical Ethics Committee

Assessment of ethical and legal aspects of medical research in human beings; the medical ethics committee must approve the commencement of clinical studies


O

ORR

Abbreviation for objective overall response rate.

OS

Abbreviation for overall survival.

Out-Licensing Agreement

Granting of a license to a third party to use one or more industrial property rights.


P

PFS

Abbreviation for progression free survival.

PFSR

Abbreviation for progression free survival rate.

Pharmacodynamics

Study of the efficacy of drugs in a living organism.

Pharmacokinetics

Spatial and temporal distribution of compounds throughout the various tissues of an organism.

Phase I

Clinical trial of a drug conducted in a small number of healthy patients subject to strict controls; serves to test the tolerance, pharmacokinetics, method of administration and safe dose of the compound.

Phase II

Clinical trial conducted in a small number of patients subject to strict controls to identify a compound’s sudden side effects and risks; determination of the efficacy of the drug and any potential side effects.

Phase III

Study conducted in a large number of patients (between several hundred and several thousand) to determine the safety, efficacy and optimum dosage of a drug under real therapeutic conditions.

Preclinical

Laboratory tests related to a new drug candidate conducted in animals, organs or cell cultures in order to obtain satisfactory evidence that a clinical study is justified and that the drug candidate is classified as safe.

Prime Standard

Listing segment of Deutsche Börse with clearly defined transparency requirements.

Proof-Of-Concept

Milestone proving a drug candidate’s efficacy in medical terms, usually in Phase II.

Proteasom

Multi-protein complex for the decomposition of used cellular products.

Protein

Large complex molecule composed of amino acids. Proteins are essential to the structure, regulation and function of all organisms; typical proteins include enzymes and antibodies.


R

Recist Criteria

Abbreviation for response evaluation criteria in solid tumours; guidelines on the evaluation of therapeutic success in solid tumours.

Royalties

Compensation for the use of third-party rights to intellectual property. Royalties are generally calculated as a certain percentage of the revenue generated from the intellectual property rights.


S

SAE

Abbreviation for serious adverse events.

SIC

Abbreviation for Standing Interpretations Committee.

Steroid

Class of hormones such as cholesterol which has an anti-inflammatory effect.


T

Target

Specific biological molecule, e.g. an enzyme or receptor, which plays an important role in the origination or development of a disease. Compounds/drugs develop their therapeutic activity by binding to a target molecule.

Targeted Therapies

Specific influencing and controlling of signalling pathways in cancer and autoimmune diseases.

Toxicity

Undesirable side effects of a substance depending on its dose.

Toxicology

Field of science examining the effects of toxic substances or the toxicity of substances.

TTP

Abbreviation for time to progression.


W

WHO

World Health Organization; the United Nations agency responsible for international public health.

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